Skip to content

Chapter 4

TCP/IP Model

4. Application
3. Transport
2. Internet
1. Network Access

OSI Reference Model

7. Application - Data
6. Presentation - Data
5. Session - Data
4. Transport - Segment
3. Network - Packet
2. Data Link - Frame
1. Physical - Bit
Bandwidth is the capacity of a medium to carry data. Digital bandwidth measures the amount of data that can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. Bandwidth is typically measured in kilobits per second (kb/s), megabits per second (Mb/s), or gigabits per second (Gb/s). Bandwidth is sometimes thought of as the speed that bits travel, however this is not accurate. For example, in both 10Mb/s and 100Mb/s Ethernet, the bits are sent at the speed of electricity. The difference is the number of bits that are transmitted per second.

bandwidth = 1 sn de gönderilebilen veri miktarıdır. Birimi bps (bit per second)
1Kb = 1000 bit
1Mb = 1.000.000 bit
10Mb = 10.000.000 bit
100Mb = 100.000.000 bit
1000Mb = 1Gbit = 1.000.000.000 bit
10Gbit = 10.000.000.000 bit
40Gbit = 40.000.000.000 bit
100Gbit = 100.000.000.000 bit

Throughput = anlık bandwidth

Goodput is the measure of usable data transferred over a given period of time.

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI) - EMI and RFI signals can distort and corrupt the data signals being carried by copper media. Potential sources of EMI and RFI include radio waves and electromagnetic devices, such as fluorescent lights or electric motors.

Crosstalk - Crosstalk is a disturbance caused by the electric or magnetic fields of a signal on one wire to the signal in an adjacent wire.

UTP kablo türleri

Ethernet Straight-through : host cihazlarını switch / hub a bağlarken, switch / hub ı router a bağlarken kullanılır.

Ethernet Crossover : aynı tür cihazlarını birbirlerine bağlamak için kullanılır.

Rollover: console cable (management için kullanılır)
router - router : Crossover
router - switch : Straight-through
router - hub : Straight-through
router - pc : Crossover

switch - switch : Crossover
switch - hub : Crossover
switch - pc : Straight-through

hub - hub : Crossover
hub - pc : Straight-through

pc - pc : Crossover

auto mdi-x : bu özellik sayesinde cihazlar otomatik bir şekilde gerektiğinde yazılımsal bir şekilde düz kabloyu cross olarak çalıştırır.

T568A
1. Yb
2. Y
3. Tb
4. M
5. Mb
6. T
7. Kb
8. K

T568B
1. Tb
2. T
3. Yb
4. M
5. Mb
6. Y
7. Kb
8. K

Rollover cable
1 > 8
2 > 7
3 > 6
4 > 5
5 > 4
6 > 3
7 > 2
8 > 1
* 10Mbit ve 100Mbit için 2 pair kullanılır. 1000Mbit ve üzerinde 4 pair de kullanılır.