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Chapter 3

Encoding is the process of converting information into another acceptable form, for transmission. Decoding reverses this process in order to interpret the information.

IEEE 802.3 > ethernet
IEEE 802.11 > wireless

TCP/IP > çalışan (Protocol) model
4. Application
3. Transport
2. Internet
1. Network Access

OSI Reference Model > referans model
7. Application > data
6. Presentation > data
5. Session > data
4. Transport > segment
3. Network > packet
2. Data Link > frame
1. Physical > bit

Segmentation : Verinin parçalara ayrılmasıdır.

Multiplexing : Dönüşümlü çalışma (aynı iletim ortamı üzerinden farklı host lara ait verilerin sırayla gönderilmesi)

As application data is passed down the protocol stack on its way to be transmitted across the network media, various protocol information is added at each level. This is known as the encapsulation process.

De-encapsulation is the process used by a receiving device to remove one or more of the protocol headers. The data is de-encapsulated as it moves up the stack toward the end-user application.

The form that a piece of data takes at any layer is called a protocol data unit (PDU).

7,6,5 > http, ftp, email, dns
4 > tcp, udp
3 > IPv4, IPv6
2 > ethernet

Node (networking), a device such as a computer or switch attached to a computer or telecommunications network, or a point in a network topology where lines intersect or terminate.

Host (network), a computer connected to the Internet or another IP-based network.